Our world is far from safe. Indeed, according to the statistics of the World Health Organization, more than 15 million people in the world die or are injured annually from animals and plants. We have prepared a list of the most dangerous animals on the planet Earth.
An encounter with an animal can often be fatal to a person. Who is to be feared the most?
1st place: Mosquitoes
The rating of deadly creatures was headed by mosquitoes.
Mosquitoes (lat. Phlebotominae) are a subfamily of long-whiskered dipterous insects of the gnat complex. They are distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Includes several genera, notably Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World, which include a total of over 500 species. Representatives of these genera are important as carriers of human and animal diseases, in particular — leishmaniasis, bartonellosis and pappataci fever (mosquito fever).
From the diseases carried by these insects, two million people die every year.
2nd place: Indian cobra (Naja naja)
Every year around the world there are 50,000 bites by poisonous snakes with a fatal outcome for humans. Asian cobras are responsible for the largest part of them. As a rule, snakes do not attack people first and bite when they are disturbed. On the territory of our country there are 10 species of poisonous snakes. The most dangerous are the bites of the Central Asian cobra, gyurza and efa.
In India, the spectacle snake is an object of reverent reverence and even almost superstitious fear. She is worshiped and cajoled in every way. She even became one of the heroines in religious legends: “When the Buddha once wandered the earth and fell asleep under the rays of the midday sun, a cobra appeared, expanded its shield and blocked the face of God from the sun. Satisfied with this, the god promised her extraordinary mercy, but forgot about his promise, and the snake was forced to remind him of this, since the vultures made terrible devastation among them at that time. In protection from these birds of prey, the Buddha gave goggles to the cobra, which kites are still afraid of. ”If a resident of Malabar finds a poisonous snake in his house, he asks her in the most friendly way to leave. If this does not help at all, then he holds food in front of her to lure her out. And if she doesn’t leave even then, then he calls on the servants of the deity, who, of course, for an appropriate reward, make touching exhortations to the snake, speak to the snake. Such reverence is not accidental. Not even because the Hindus consider the snake to be a deity. The Indian cobra (aka the spectacled snake and the naga) is very dangerous, and in no case should it be angered, then the snake becomes very aggressive and uncontrollable. Indian cobra 1.4–1.81 m long, fiery yellow, in certain light with an ash-blue sheen. On the back of the head, a pattern resembling glasses is clearly distinguished — a clear light pattern on the back of the neck, which becomes clearly visible when the snake is defending itself. The value of the bright pattern on the dorsal side of the snake is very great — it keeps the predator from attacking, even if he managed to run to the snake from the rear. The ventral side is gray and often has wide black stripes on the front of the body. The rounded and slightly blunt head smoothly merges into the body. The head is covered with large shields, the upper jaw is armed with paired poisonous fangs, followed by 1–3 more small teeth. Turkmenistan to the Caspian Sea. In the Himalayas, it is found up to a height of 2,500 m. A spectacled snake chooses a place it likes and, if nothing forces it to leave, lives there throughout its life. Her favorite dwellings are abandoned mounds of termites, ruins, heaps of stones and wood, holes in clay walls. Until it is disturbed, the snake lies lazily in front of the entrance to its dwelling, usually basking in the sun, and when a person appears, as a rule, it hides hastily. Only brought to the extreme, she rushes at the attacker. The snake starts hunting only in the late afternoon hours and often continues to crawl late at night. Therefore, it can rightfully be called a nocturnal reptile. Cobra food consists exclusively of small animals, mainly reptiles and amphibians: lizards, frogs and toads. She hunts mice, rats, insects. Often robs bird nests. The spectacled cobra should not be considered slow and awkward. Maybe she is more clumsy than some of her brothers, but still she climbs trees perfectly and swims perfectly, she can even dive. The spectacled snake has quite a few enemies, among which the first place belongs to the mongoose. This small predator fearlessly attacks snakes of any size. But for a person, an Indian snake is extremely dangerous. Even with a broken tooth, a snake can inflict injury, moreover, in place of broken teeth, no less poisonous substitute teeth soon grow. Cobra venom of neurotoxic action. A minute later, complete paralysis sets in. The venom of the spectacled cobra is so toxic that a chicken bite dies after 4 minutes, and a laboratory mouse after 2 minutes. But a cobra never bites a person without special need, and even if it makes a throw towards the enemy, it often does not open its mouth (fake throw). Never anger a cobra. Even if she is nearby, you should not beat the snake with a stick or throw any objects at it. This will only anger the reptile, and it will attack in self-defense.
The upper jaw is armed with paired poisonous fangs, followed by 1–3 more small teeth. For humans, the Indian snake is extremely dangerous.
3rd place: Australian Jellyfish (Sea Wasp)
Sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri) The coast of Northern Australia is famous for its gorgeous beaches and magnificent coral reefs. Hundreds of thousands of tourists from all over the world come here. But it is here that one of the most formidable animals for humans lives. True, it looks quite harmless: a small jellyfish with elongated tentacles. No wonder she was also called the sea wasp, ocean stinger or ghostly killer. The sea wasp appears off the northern coast of Australia between October and March in calm weather at high tide. She comes here in search of food, for example, shrimps, which she loves very much. The sea wasp is almost invisible in the water, as it keeps in the shaded places of the coastal strip, and therefore it is difficult to protect oneself from a collision with it. Every year about 20 people die from its poison. The poison is so toxic that one dose can kill 60 people at once. A study conducted on laboratory animals showed that even small doses killed a guinea pig in 3 seconds. The bell of the Australian jellyfish has a rounded cubic shape. Four outgrowths resembling “hands” depart from the lower corners. Each hand is divided into several fingers, from which hangs up to sixty tentacles. Basically, the sea wasp is a small jellyfish (compared to other deep-seated jellyfish). The largest representative of this family is the size of a basketball, and the tentacles can grow up to 1.5 meters. The Australian jellyfish began to be studied relatively recently — only a century ago. The sea wasp is considered a rather mysterious animal. For example, one of the mysteries over which zoologists from all over the world are struggling is the presence of eyes in the sea wasp. Everything would be fine, but it is absolutely incomprehensible where the visual signals go if this creature has no brain … The Australian jellyfish does not specifically attack its prey. She stands still, waiting for a fish or crab to swim up to her. The victim stumbles upon one of the tentacles, and the jellyfish immediately delivers fatal blows with the sting of its tentacles. In relation to people, the jellyfish is not aggressive, but any careless touch threatens to cause trouble for a person. This is especially dangerous when jellyfish hide in shallow water. If snakes and spiders bite their prey once and only in one place, then the sea wasp stings its prey several times. This leads to extensive poisoning. The human skin turns red, the bite site swells with lightning speed. The body temperature rises sharply, and after a couple of minutes the thermometer “rolls over”, as with the most severe poisoning. A victim of the poison of a sea wasp experiences excruciating pain, accompanied by loss of consciousness. A person can die from paralysis of the respiratory tract. Sometimes death does not come immediately. Terrible pain can last 10–12 hours and be accompanied by heart failure. In 2002, two scuba divers swam in the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Having met an Australian jellyfish, they decided to play with it, not knowing about its poisonous properties. Nothing good these games, of course, did not end. One died even less than thirty seconds after being stung by a sea wasp. The second received a smaller dose of poison, he even managed to swim to the shore. But he died an hour later. Encounters with a sea wasp can sometimes be avoided without even swimming into the depths. An 11-year-old girl, wandering through the water 10 meters from the shore, was stung in the leg and died a minute later. The fact is that on a quiet, cloudless day, the tide often carries sea wasps to shallow water or even to the sand; experienced people do not bathe these days. According to statistics, the sea wasp is the most dangerous inhabitant of the seas, even ahead of the shark. After all, after the shark attack, there were cases when people survived. But after an injection with a poisonous thorn of an Australian jellyfish, no one managed to survive. Medicine today is powerless against the poison of the sea wasp.
The poison is so toxic that one dose can kill 60 people at once. The sea wasp stings its prey in several places at once, which leads to extensive infection. Medicine today is powerless against the poison of the sea wasp.
4th place: Great White Shark
Since the time when a person decided to explore the expanses of the ocean, he considers the shark enemy number one. Real stories about these monsters are closely intertwined with fantasy, sharks are surrounded by a halo of ominous mystery. Merciless and dangerous killers — this is the reputation that has been attached to the entire shark family. There are about 350 species of sharks, but less than half of them are involved in crimes against people. In third place in the list of cannibal sharks is the hammerhead shark, the second is the tiger shark, and the great white shark is in the lead. This “queen of the oceans” has no equal in strength and bloodthirstiness. It is found in the moderately warm waters of the North Atlantic Ocean, in the North Pacific Ocean, as well as off the coast of Argentina, the Falkland Islands, South Africa, South Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Chile , Peru and Ecuador. They are usually found near the sea surface only in spring and summer, that is, when the water is richest in planktonic food. The body of the white shark is cigar-shaped. The large symmetrical caudal fin consists of a greatly enlarged upper lobe and a small lower lobe. The pectoral fins are large, they serve to support the front of the body, which, in their absence, would inevitably sink down when swimming. How often do they attack people? Optimists argue that the likelihood of being killed by lightning or crushed by a car is much higher than the likelihood of being hit by a shark. However, despite this, dozens of people die from shark teeth every year. Official statistics claim that from 30 to 200 people die every year from this predator. What about unofficial? How many people who are considered missing after shipwrecks fall into the jaws of sharks? Not only in the ocean do sharks attack people, but also near the shore, in shallow water. They attack their prey regardless of the weather. They can attack in calm weather and in a storm, in clear sunshine or in heavy rain. If the constant food of the shark — fish or lobsters, for some reason disappear, then the shark, blinded by hunger, attacks anyone, be it a man or even a sperm whale. In principle, the shark eats relatively little, but its promiscuity in food is simply amazing. What was not found in shark stomachs: tin cans, boots, hand grenades, horseshoes. And once in the belly of a shark they found a native drum weighing about 7 kg. Nature has endowed sharks with the perfect tool for killing. The jaws, seated at the edges with pointed teeth, have tremendous strength. In the mouth, there are up to a hundred teeth arranged in several rows. As soon as the front teeth fall out, they are immediately replaced by the back ones. Biologists managed to measure the force with which the shark squeezes its jaws: this is, no less than hundreds of kilograms! She can easily tear off a person’s leg, or even bite the body in half. When attacking, the shark first plunges its lower teeth, impaling its prey as if on a fork. The upper jaws begin to shred the body at this time. That’s why there are so many deaths when people meet sharks. It is also difficult to hide from the shark because it perfectly smells its prey, recognizing smells at a great distance. An important role in hunting and vision. True, sharks are pretty shortsighted. However, the closer to the victim, the more the value of this sense organ grows. For 3–4 meters, it is the eyes that guide the further actions of the shark. Much in the behavior of sharks remains incomprehensible. Either she can swim past a bloodied man, or she rushes to attack an armed scuba diver. It seems that sometimes sharks fall into some kind of food frenzy and, in a blind rage, pounce on any object that gets in its way. But in general, the shark is very cautious. Having met an unfamiliar object, she will first circle around for a long time, finding out whether it is dangerous or not. The shark can stab its prey with its nose, checking again if it is edible. Only after these precautions does she rush to the prey. The pectoral fins are lowered, the nose is slightly raised, the back is hunched. A jerk — and the victim is already in the teeth of a shark. Sophisticated scientific studies have shown that a person abusing fishing leads to a decrease in the amount of food for sharks, and the lack of food is the main reason for their aggressive behavior towards swimmers and surfers. The number of collisions is increasing due to the fact that more people go to the open sea, ignoring the warnings of the authorities, and enter into shark habitats, which leads to skirmishes and collisions with animals. The data shows that 6 out of 10 attacks are provoked by people. For example, emboldened scuba divers are increasingly trying to touch the shark. Very often there are attacks on fishermen who are trying to pull out the shark they have caught. Well, how do you get out alive from a fight with a shark? Here are some real life examples. Richard Watley, who was swimming, was attacked by a shark in mid-June 2005 in Alabama. He was almost 100 meters from the shore when he felt a strong jolt in his thigh. He realized it was a shark and tried to escape. A second later, the shark received a powerful punch in the nose — all that Richard was capable of, he put into this blow. Having sent the predator into a knockdown, Richard rushed with all his might to the saving shore. But the shark quickly recovered and continued to attack. However, each of her attempts to attack ended in failure: blows to the nose followed one after another, until Richard finally crawled ashore safe and sound. Incidentally, this was the first recorded shark attack on a human in Alabama in 25 years. So what? A powerful right hook to the nose of a shark — an effective defense? In this case, of course, the person survived, but in most cases, such blows will only annoy the shark, so if you see a shark, then you better freeze and wait for help. Yes, so far the shark is the number one enemy in the water for humans. But I would like to hope that in the near future a person will invent some kind of remedy against the attack of these bloodthirsty predators. Then, perhaps, a person’s fear of this fish will dissipate and he will appreciate these formidable hunters of our planet.
Aggressive. They attack both at depth and in shallow water. They have powerful jaws with sharp teeth. Not picky about food.
5th place: African lion
There is a lot of debate about whether the lion can be said to be the king of the beasts, because the lion is not the largest member of the cat family (the largest cat is the tiger). But still, when you meet him in nature, you experience a certain thrill. A truly powerful beast: powerful body, broad head, muscular paws. A lion grows up to 2.5 m, and even a meter long tail. Males are 1.5 times larger than females. In addition, the pride of males is a beautiful and thick mane. The color varies from light yellow to dark brown. The lion is armed with claws, which can be almost 10 cm each. Lions live in Africa, in the southern region of the Sahara, in Northwestern India. They used to be common in Asia, but now there are very few lions left there. They live in savannahs, upland semi-deserts, riverine forests and deserts. Once, a ranger in Kenya observed how only two lions hunted a rhino, and the rhinoceros is considered one of the most formidable animals in Africa. Few predators dare to mess with him, but those lions killed the rhinoceros in just 20 minutes. At one time, the lion is able to eat up to 18 kg. This is not so much, considering that a lion can not eat for a very long time — a whole week. At the same time, he absolutely does not lose strength. But if there is an opportunity, then he eats himself to satiety. These formidable animals hunt, mainly in a whole group, together. This is done as follows: the females hide in the grass not far from the grazing antelopes or zebras, and at this time the males slowly creep up to the herd. As the lions get closer, the herd begins to retreat. But the lions just need it. It just seems that the lions will not succeed. Do not forget that lionesses are hiding in the bushes. Males play only the role of beaters, taking their victims to the bushes, where they are already waiting for them. Lionesses rush at prey, trying to immediately bite their throats. Usually lions kill their prey quickly. This is not for humanitarian reasons at all. It’s just that who kills quickly, he himself is less at risk of being injured in a fight. So, the main role in the extraction of food belongs to lionesses. However, despite this, only the lion has the right to be the first to taste food. The best pieces go to him. Everything that remains after is eaten up by the rest of this large family. It’s just that the male has a great responsibility: it is the lion who protects the pride. Giving him the best pieces, the rest, as it were, are grateful for it. After all, nothing is more important for a family than vast territories with rich hunting grounds, sufficient water and convenient shelter. What is the danger to humans? Like many predators, a lion on purpose almost never attacks a person. You just have to be careful not to get caught in his eyes. It’s a predator! You should not think that in circuses and zoos lions become tame cats. In Sergiev Posad, near Moscow, on the morning of Sunday, May 3, 2003, a lion and a lioness managed to escape from a cage in a circus tent while feeding. Two trainers tried to drive them back into the cage, but the lions attacked one of them and ate him to death. Cannibal lions are very scary for humans. True, cases of their cannibalism are much less than, for example, among tigers. Over the past hundred years, 580 people have been killed by tigers and 210 by lions. The most famous case occurred during the construction of the railway connecting Mombasa and Nairobi: this construction was paralyzed for a long time because of a pair of lions. Every night they raided the camp. In total, they killed 28 people. Cannibals are, as a rule, old lions, expelled from the pride by stronger males. It is difficult for them to hunt herbivores, but a man is the easiest prey for them. Since then, the lion begins to terrify the surrounding residents. In the fight against man-eating lions, there is only one means — to destroy them. Having tasted human flesh once, the lion understands that a person is not so scary and very vulnerable. So “either he us or we him.” But one should not encourage hunting for everyone, just because of the fear of the animal. Remember, the main thing: be careful, do not provoke a predator, then the lion will not attack you.
Armed with claws, which can be 10 cm each. Aggressive. Cases of cannibalism have been recorded.
6th place: Crocodile
Salted crocodile; Australian Saltwater crocodile (saltwater crocodile); Indo-Pacific crocodile; seafaring crocodile; underwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) — Australian Saltwater Crocodile …
The combed crocodile is called the king of reptiles and the storm of all living things. He was feared and admired at all times. What is the greatness of this reptile, and why does a person, even today, in the age of new technologies, never cease to experience panic fear when meeting this animal? The combed crocodile is found in the tropical regions of Asia and in the waters of the Pacific Ocean (from India to Australia). The most favorite place for combed crocodiles is the Palau archipelago. Here their number is almost 2000 individuals. The large distribution area is explained by the fact that combed crocodiles can move long distances in the open sea. The mouth, equipped with 54 to 68 small but very sharp teeth, closes with great speed and force. They are very aggressive and often attack people.
7th place: Elephant
The publication also advises staying away from elephants, under whose massive legs 600 people die every year.
An angry elephant tramples the enemy, grabs it with its trunk and throws it, sweeps away everything in its path
8th place: Polar bears
The polar bear is the largest terrestrial mammal of the carnivore order. Its length reaches 3 m, weight up to 800 kg. Usually males weigh 400–500 kg; body length 200–250 cm, height at the withers up to 160 cm. Females are noticeably smaller (200–300 kg). The smallest bears are found in Svalbard, the largest in the Bering Sea. The polar bear is distinguished from other bears by its long neck and flat head. His skin is black. The coat color varies from white to yellowish; in summer, the fur may turn yellow due to constant exposure to sunlight. The polar bear’s fur is devoid of pigmentation, and the hairs are hollow. There is a hypothesis that they act as light guides, absorbing ultraviolet rays; in any case, in ultraviolet photography, the polar bear appears dark. Due to the structure of the hairs, the polar bear can sometimes “turn green”. This happens in a hot climate (in zoos), when microscopic algae grow inside the hairs.
On polar bears, occupying the 8th place in the ranking “Most Dangerous Animals”, it is also better to admire from the side. These predators are ready to tear apart anyone who approaches their cubs.
All senses are highly developed, especially sight and smell. A bear can see its prey for many kilometers. The bear is very curious. He is attracted by everything new, the taste of which he certainly checks.
9th place: African buffalo
The African buffalo kills more people in Africa every year than any other predator.
10th place: Arrow frogs and leaf climbers (Dendrobatidae and Phyllobates trinitatis)
It is impossible not to notice the frogs and leaf climbers in nature, as these are the most brightly colored amphibians on our earth. They live in the forests of South and Central America. Representatives of the poison dart frog family live along the banks of rivers and streams, in the rainforests of mountains and lowlands. Some spend most of their lives in trees. There are also those who live in open dry spaces, content with the moisture of shaded areas of soil under stunted plants. Unlike other amphibians, poison dart frogs are only active during the day and sleep at night. As you know, dangerous poisonous animals have a bright skin, thereby ensuring safety from predators and warning strangers. Dart frogs and leaf frogs are very brightly colored. These frogs are very poisonous. They have the deadliest poison. Especially dangerous is the Terrible Leaf Climber (Phyllobates terribilis) from Venezuela. This inhabitant of humid forests reaches a length of 25 mm and is colored in gray-olive or brownish tones with dark spots. The abdomen of females is golden yellow. This leaf climber is active during the day and preys on small insects, spiders and worms. About 130 species are included in the DREVOLAZ family (Dendrobatidae), but among them there is not a single non-poisonous frog. In poison dart frogs, the skin is pierced by glands that secrete microscopic proportions of poison, which are quite enough to kill a jaguar. This poison consists of about a hundred different substances. This is one of the strongest poisons of non-protein nature. It is so dangerous that scientists have to wear thick gloves to handle it, as the poison can penetrate through any cut or even scratch. The poison has a terrible nerve-paralytic effect. As a result, cardiac arrhythmia occurs, leading to cardiac arrest. In order for the poison to work, it is enough for it to enter the bloodstream through the mucous membrane or cracks in the skin. That is why no one dares to touch these frogs, except for the Indians, who lubricate hunting arrows with frog poison. Vaccines against poison dart frogs have not been invented. It is hardly possible to stay alive after this poison enters the body. Each frog produces enough of the toxin that one dose can kill at least 10 people. In fact, dart frogs are a rare exception in nature. Basically, the poison of living creatures that defend themselves from predators is rather weak — most often it comes down to “chemical defense” (like a ladybug or a forest bug). Another thing is with animals that hunt large prey. They wait a long time and then rush to the victim. They often have only one chance to take their prey, so the poison must be very strong and act instantly. Dart frogs do not prey on large animals. Their main food is small insects, spiders and worms. Why they need such a strong poison is still unknown. Another interesting fact associated with these amphibians is that the poison dart frogs themselves are not sensitive to their poison. The origin of their toxin is also unclear. Cases are known when poison dart frogs grown in captivity lost their toxicity. Apparently, they need some special diet to maintain the toxin in the body. So, in the end, we repeat once again: the frogs of the dart frogs and leaf climbers are extremely dangerous for humans. But by themselves, these frogs do not throw themselves at people, so there is no chance of being poisoned by their poison, unless, of course, you yourself touch their skin. Therefore, the most important way to protect yourself is very simple — do not touch these frogs!
Highly venomous and dangerous, the skin is riddled with glands that secrete microscopic amounts of venom sufficient to kill an adult jaguar. Vaccines against dart frog venom have not been invented.